Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Zoom Dysmorphia: Red Flags and Diagnostic Tools.


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This presentation reviews essential diagnostic features of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) and the closely related entity Zoom Dysmorphia (ZD). BDD is a preoccupation with an imagined or slight flaw in appearance that causes significant distress or impairment. It is characterized by repetitive and avoidant behaviors or mental acts in response to the preoccupation. ZD is a facial dysmorphia triggered or aggravated by frequent virtual meetings. Recent studies show that the frequent use of videoconferencing platforms is linked to a distorted perception of facial images that can trigger dysmorphic concerns. The diagnosis of BDD includes three components: (a) history and patient observation, (b) structured interview, and (c) pen and pencil tools (questionnaires). This presentation reviews BDD screening tools, focusing on those validated in the cosmetic setting. The speaker recommends two concise tools, i.e., the BDDQ-Dermatology Version (BDDQ-DV) (9-item long); developed by Dufresne, 2001), and the BDDQ-Aesthetic Surgery (BDDQ-AS) (7-item long; developed by Lekakis, 2016). Still, there have yet to be any respective screening tools for ZD. The presenter recently proposed a ZD tool for use in a virtual setting (Türk CB, Mirza FN, Kroumpouzos G. A Screening Proposal for Zoom Dysmorphia in Virtual Settings. Life (Basel). 2023;13(8):1678). The tool comprises open-ended questions, questions for ZD screening, and a BDD-focused question. The tool can help recognize ZD at an early stage. As ZD may trigger an increase in BDD, it is essential to identify the presence of BDD in ZD sufferers and treat it appropriately.