Journal

Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD)

frequency: it is common being present in: – 11.9% of people in dermatology offices – 8-15% of people in a cosmetic setting – 1-2% of individuals in the population     Cases which can resemble Body Dysmorphoc Disorder (BDD): -Stigmatization feelings in objective dematological (skin) disorders -BDD behaviour in eating […]

Read More

Michael Jackson: Vitiligo and Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD)

Michael Jackson (1958-2009) was an American Singer and is often called the “King of Pop”     He is reported to have suffered from vitiligo and the whitening of the rest of his black skin was done with monobenzone 20% (benoquin). His skin progressively became white and the gradual change […]

Read More

Monobenzone 20% (Benoquin)

This product is known as Benoquin. Benoquin is a very potent skin whitener and may cause complete and permanent skin depigmentation. Benoquin must never be used on normal skin to produce a white complexion nor is it allowed to be utilized for the treatment of hyperpigmentary disorders as melasma, freckles, […]

Read More

Kim Kardashian and Psoriasis

Kim Kardashian is an American reality TV personality and model born in 1980.     Kim Kardashian revealed in her blog that she had psoriasis in 2011: -The following article links to her video visit to her dermatologist: click HERE -Below are the photos of her leg:     Psoriasis […]

Read More

Gorbachev and Birthmark (Port-Wine Stain)

Mikhail Gorbachev (Михаи́л Серге́евич Горбачёв; 1931-2022) was the last leader of the Soviet Union (USSR; Chairman  of the Presidium of the Soviet Supreme) from 1988 to its fall in 1991.     He is famous for having implemented policies to end the cold-war: -glasnost (“openness”) -perestroika (“restructuring”)     To […]

Read More

Wrinkles: Crow’s feet appear first and the Reason why (Anatomy)

New finding that might explain why the skin wrinkles more on various parts of the face. Tamatsu Y, Tsukahara K, Sugawara Y, Shimada K. Clin Anat. 2015 Sep;28(6):745-52. doi: 10.1002/ca.22571. Epub 2015 Jul 1.     Crow’s feet wrinkles (laterally to the eyes; lateral canthus area) are typically the first […]

Read More

Skin Cosmetic Treatment Procedures and Surgery

Have you ever wanted to get rid of ugly moles, brown spots or scars on your face? If so, you are not alone. When it comes to skin cosmetic procedures, a wrong decision on your part can make the difference between aesthetic improvement and chronic embarrassment. Thus, it pays to […]

Read More

Acne Scars: Lasers Used to Treat them

Type of Scar and Corresponding treatment: Atrophic Scars ( en pic à glace(Icepick), rolling and boxcar scars): -ablative laser (CO2 laser 10600nm, Erbium YAG 2940nm): most effective, but carries the highest risk of scarring and dyschromia. Not effective for treating sebaceous hyperplasia. -fractional laser (Fractional Co2 and Erbium): special nomenclature=MTZ […]

Read More

About acne in adult females

Adult female acne: a new paradigm. Dréno B, Layton A, Zouboulis CC, López-Estebaranz JL, Zalewska-Janowska A, Bagatin E, Zampeli VA, Yutskovskaya Y, Harper JC. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2013 Sep;27(9):1063-1070. doi: 10.1111/jdv.12061. Epub 2013 Jan 10.     Adult female acne is a problem. Indeed 12% of females at […]

Read More

白斑 (日本語)

白斑     白斑とは何か。 白斑は、皮膚に白い斑点や斑模様が生じる皮膚疾患です。 原因は、肌の色を作り上げるメラニン色素細胞の欠失によるものです。色素細胞(メラノサイト)が破壊されメラニンが生成できなくなったときに起こります。 白斑は、伝染病ではありません。     以下の部位によく発症します:[…]

Read More

子供に見られる白いしみ (日本語)

子供に見られる白いしみに多く見られる原因は、次のものです。 1) 白色粃糠疹 2) 白斑     白色粃糠疹とは? 白色粃糠疹は肌の軽い炎症です。 顔や腕、上半身にできる楕円形に色素がぬけた複数のしみで、少しざらざらした感触があり、境界ははっきりしません。[…]

Read More

Occupational skin diseases (OSD)

What is an Occupational Skin Disease ? An occupational skin disease (OSD) is any skin disorder which is caused by a person’s work. A person’s existing skin disorder may also be made much worse by work activities, and such cases are also considered as OSDs. The commonest type of OSD […]

Read More

Skin Manifestations related to Obesity

What is obesity ? Obesity is a public health problem in the industrialized world. It is defined by a BMI (Body Mass Index) of more than 30 Kg/m2. In the United States, it is estimated that  30% of individuals are overweight or obese (BMI more than 25)     What […]

Read More

MASI score (Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI))

Introduction This tool is mainly used in research for measuring severity in patients who have melasma (chloasma, pregnancy mask). It would be useful in the measurement of the melasma before and after a treatment for example.     Its measurement relies on the measurement in 4 areas: (F) forehead which […]

Read More

Lasers for melasma: not the sharpest knives in the drawer

The study compares trichloroacetic acid (TCA): treatment applied every 2 weeks up to 8sessions vs double frequency Q-switched Nd;YAG laser (1064nm and 532nm): treatment done once a month up to 6 sessions     Methods (and comments) 65 adult female patients were included Wood’s light to determine depth (sometimes unreliable) […]

Read More

(Atopic Dermatitis; Arabic) اكزيما الأطفال التأتبية

وتسمى ايضا بالإكزيما الطفولية التأتبية وهي عبارة عن مجموعة من الأعراض تصيب عدة أجهزة في الجسم خاصة الجلد في صورة اكزيما الأطفال او الارتكاريا والجهاز التنفسي في صورة مرض الربو والأنف في صورة حساسية الأنف . في البحرين حوالي 10% من الاطفال مصابين بالاكزيما وجفاف البشرة. من اسباب الاصابة بالاكزيما: […]

Read More

How the Skin Reacts to the Environment

In Situ Mapping of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Human Skin: Evidence for Remarkable. Differences between Normal and Inflamed Skin. In Situ Mapping of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Human Skin: Evidence for Remarkable Differences between Normal and Inflamed Skin. Brüggen MC, Bauer WM, Reininger B, Clim E, Captarencu C, Steiner GE, […]

Read More

Why Some of Us Get Dry Skin in the Winter

Summary Dry Skin (xerosis) is a condition which affects some individuals but not others. It occurs during seasonal change, and is more prevalent as an individual increases in age. In our globalized era, it is becoming more frequent as individuals migrate larger distances; for example to Europe or North America […]

Read More

Osteoporosis: is Shingles a Risk Factor ?

-Shingles is a common condition which appeared following the reactivation of chicken pox. -This retrospective study shows a high relative risk of developing shingles which is 4 and a half times higher than in those not having developed shingles. A slightly higher odds was demonstrated in patients having developed pain […]

Read More

How “Sugar” on a Wound helps it Heal

Summary -Topically applied sugars, in contrast to high internal sugar levels (diabetes), help a wound heal faster. This study examines the expression of Filaggrin and Claudin 1…the latter are two important proteins located in the epidermis which are important for barrier function.     Background -Glucose in the blood stream […]

Read More

Leprosy: Visible Fight Between Infection and Immunity

Introduction Pregnancy and the postpartum are periods where profound changes in immunity occur. More precisely hormonal and metabolic changes in pregnancy such as nutrient deficiencies and altered secretion of steroids account for depressed cellular immunity in pregnant women. Leprosy relapses are immunologically mediated episodes of acute or subacute inflammation which […]

Read More

Browse a Previous Issue of JEADV (August 2020)

Here below are contents from the JEADV August 2020 Issue that could interest you:     Pioneers in Dermatology and Venereology: an interview with Prof. Nikolay Tsankov: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jdv.16804     The first mention of itch in history? When Egyptologists scratch their heads: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jdv.16133     Editor’s Picks:  –Efficacy of non‐insulated […]

Read More

Intralesional treatment of warts with a vaccine

Intralesional immunotherapy of common warts: successful treatment with mumps, measles and rubella vaccine. Nofal A, Nofal E. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010 Feb 25.     Introduction Common warts are a nuisance in which they are visible, their cause is known; but despite numerous treatments available, none of them […]

Read More

Darier’s Disease

What is Darier’s disease ?
 Also called keratosis follicularis. Was described at the beginning of the 20th century by the French dermatologist Jean Darier. At the time he had coined the condition follicular porospermosis (“Porospermose folliculaire”)
-Is one of the most common genodermatosis and affects one person out of 30000. It […]

Read More

Impetigo: its original description

Impetigo was first described by a British Dermatologist named William Tilbury Fox in the 18th century. Here is an excerpt from his Atlas: “Diagnostic features are:
-its apparently epidemic character in many cases
-the antecedent febrile condition
-its attacking children
-the origin from isolated vesicles which tend to enlarge into blebs and to become […]

Read More

How skin pH could affect disease activity in Atopic Dermatitis

Atopic Dermatitis (AD), beyond filaggrin mutations is better understood, but still remains (at the time of publication) full of gaps. pH alterations in AD are a matter of debate, but they do have an effect on its symptoms (itching) and appearance. This study shows molecular as well as physical alterations […]

Read More

Childhood Eczema: What it Means to the Parents

–Eczema is a chronic skin disease that affects a large population worldwide. In Hong-Kong, around one third of primary and secondary students experience skin problems and eczema is one of the major diseases reported. -Research studies have shown that not only will children with eczema suffer from physical and emotional […]

Read More

Skin Problems seen when watching Movies

Movies and the Skin Albinism (pale skin and light eyes is often viewed as a sign of Evil) -Da Vinci Code (2006): Silas is an albino (and has scarring and automutilation) -Foul Play (1978): Whitey Jackson (William Frankfather) is an albino -Horror of Dracula (1958): pale skin only -Matrix Reloaded […]

Read More

Methotrexate

What is methotrexate used for? Methotrexate is a medicine used to treat psoriasis. It is also used for many other diseases In Psoriasis, your skin cells grow and mature too rapidly, resulting in elevated, red plaques covered by dry silvery scales. Methotrexate acts by slowing down this excess cell reproduction, […]

Read More

Pityriasis Rosea

What is pityriasis rosea? Pityriasis rosea is a kind of “skin flu”. It might also be caused by a virus. It is more common in young adults. It tends to have seasonal peaks.     What does it look like? It is characterized clinically: -initially, it presents as a red […]

Read More

Phototherapy

Phototherapy is the use of light in the treatment of a disease. It was noted in ancient times that psoriasis often improves with exposure to the sun. The sun’s ray consists mainly of visible light, ultraviolet “A” and ultraviolet “B” (UVA and UVB). In the treatment of psoriasis, two main […]

Read More

Hepatitis B

What is hepatitis B? It  is an infection where the liver is inflamed due to an infection with the hepatitis B virus. There are many other viruses which may cause hepatitis (hepatitis A, hepatitis C, EBV, CMV…).     How is hepatitis B transmitted? Sexual intercourse with an infected individual […]

Read More

乾癬 (日本語)

乾癬とは何か? 乾癬は、皮膚の炎症性疾患です。 炎症を引き起こす原因とされる細胞の浸潤物が、周りの細胞の炎症も誘発し、炎症過程を長引かせます。     乾癬患者の割合は? 世界の人口の約2%が乾癬を発症しています。地域差があり、北欧の乾癬発症率は更に高い傾向にあります。 年齢に関係なく発症しますが、二峰性があり、最初のピークが20~30代にあった後、50~60代で次のピークがきます。    […]

Read More

The Role of Diet in Acne Vulgaris in Teenagers

INTRODUCTION The role of diet in the development of acne vulgaris is still the object of controversy and the authors studied 1757 teenagers (aged 10 to 19) and after diagnosing acne clinically in some, they performed multiple data sampling and blood tests. Every time, they compared the results between the […]

Read More

Laser Resurfacing Treatment Against Scars/Wrinkles

What Is Laser Skin Resurfacing? Using a special scanner attached to a carbon dioxide laser, your dermatologist can delicately exfoliate your skin accurately layer by layer. The superficial layer of skin is removed and the deeper layer of skin is exposed. Here collagen is stimulated and a new layer of […]

Read More

Koebner isomorphic phenomenon: the story behind the name

The isomorphic phenomenon is the occurrence of the skin lesions in traumatized areas. This occurs in the following dermatoses: vitiligo, psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen nitidus, pityriasis rubra pilaris, and keratosis follicularis (Darier’s disease).     It was described by Dr Heinrich Koebner (1838-1904) in 1876, a German dermatologist who trained […]

Read More

Donovanosis – the other name for Granuloma Inguinale

In the ancient classification (now obsolete), donovanosis was listed as the 5th venereal disease. In dermatology textbooks, it is known as Granuloma Inguinale ou venereal granuloma.     As this infection is quite rare in Western Europe and that names are quite similar, medical students tend to find it difficult […]

Read More

La borréliose ou maladie de Lyme (Français)

La borréliose, c’est quoi? La borréliose (maladie de Lyme) est une maladie systémique avec des manifestations sur la peau. Elle est provoquée par la bactérie du genre Borrelia qui est transmise via une piqûre (morsure) de tiques (famille Ixodes). Le nom maladie de Lyme refère à « Old Lyme », la ville […]

Read More

Acne Vulgaris Treatment in Adult females

Take home message: Low dose oral isotretinoin (5mg/day) for 8 months is treatment option in persistent acne vulgaris in adult females (Study fron New Zealand)     Comments: -Unfortunately: Acne in females tends to persist after puberty. In OUR experience at least 10% of women over 40 still have the […]

Read More

Acne Treatment: Combine treatments to reduce Resistance ?

Take Home Message: a third of patients have Propionibacterium resistance to conventional antibiotics (Study from India) Comments: –Benzoyl Peroxide has an antibacterial action (also against Propionibacterium Acnes): resistance is not a problem here -Antibiotics tested were: clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, azithromycin, doxycycline and minocycline -Propionibacterium studies here were not limited to […]

Read More

Isotretinoin: an extreme effect on Muscular tissue

Severe rhabdomyolysis with Isotretinoin Therapy for Acne (Poster) Philips D et al. AAD 2015 Annual Meeting, San Francisco CA – United States     Isotretinoin is  an oral vitamin A derivative most commonly used in the treatment of acne. Common side effects include skin and mucosal dryness, lipid elevations and […]

Read More

Fungal Infections Of The Skin (includes “foot rot”)

What is “Pityriasis (Tinea) Versicolor” It is made up of fine scaly white patches on the skin. It may appear on your face, neck, shoulders, arms, trunk or legs. These spots are active yeasts infecting your skin. The medical name is Pityriasis versicolor. Pityriasis Versicolor (Tinea Versicolor)     What […]

Read More

Inflammatory Skin Diseases of the Scalp

Seborrhoeic Dermatitis (Dandruff) The cause of seborrhoeic dermatitis is unknown. There are two types of seborrhoeic dermatitis: (i) infantile seborrhoeic dermatitis  – commonly seen in newborns and babies (ii) adult seborrhoeic dermatitis – commonly seen in middle-aged adults. Seborrhoeic dermatitis presents with yellowish, greasy scales on the scalp. The underlying […]

Read More

Treatment of Skin Cancer with MOHS Micrographic Surgery

Your doctor might have recommended micrographic surgery to take away your skin cancer. This page will try to explain the important things related to this surgery as well as the risks and benefits.     What is MOHS (Micrographic) Surgery ? Named after the surgeon who developed this technique, MOHS […]

Read More

MOHS surgery: an abbreviation of what ?

Well actually a joke but many of us don’t know that Mohs is actually a general surgeon.   Dr Frederic E. Mohs (1910-2002), was an American physician and surgeon from WISCONSIN who developed migrographic surgery. This “microscopically controlled method of cancer excision” was published in 1941. It a technique, which […]

Read More

Jack Nicholson and Common Balding (Androgenetic Alopecia)

Jack Nicholson is an American actor born in 1937. His career spans 6 decades and his movies include The Shining, As Good as it Gets, Batman (as the Joker), The Bucket List. During his career one notes the progression of Androgenetic* Alopecia – the scientific word for common balding: -Hair […]

Read More

Seborrheic Keratosis – Table of Contents

    Introduction Historical Features Epidemiology     Clinical Features Clinical Presentation Differential diagnosis on clinical grounds     Dermatoscopical Features Differential Diagnosis on dermoscopical grounds     Histological Features     Association of Seborrheic Keratosis (SK) with systemic disease     Etiology Origin of SK -follicular epithelium -solar lentigo […]

Read More

Morgan Freeman and Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra (DPN)

    Morgan Freeman (b. 1937) is an African-American actor who displays brownish “stuck-on” papules around the eyes. These lesions are compatible with a type of seborrheic (seborrheic) keratosis called Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra (DPN)         Even though the lesions are benign many choose to have them removed […]

Read More

Diseases of the nail (Onychopathies)

Nail Disorders can happen in a several skin conditions, either alone or accompanied by rashes. Common affections of the nails include : -Nail infection (bacteria, fungi, yeast and virus) -Paronychia: an infection of the nail fold -Nail disorder due to skin disease (psoriasis…) -Trauma to the nail     Infection […]

Read More

Neurofibromatosis

Neurofibromatosis: Neurofibromas     What is Neurofibromatosis ? It is part of the phacomatoses and different forms exist. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion.     What are the types of neurofibromatosis and what do they look like ? Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is called Von Recklinghausen’s Disease: […]

Read More

Sunprotection

The sun is our ally because it is an indirect source of vitamin D production and contributes to our psychological well-being. However, the sun is also dangerous and participates actively in the development of skin cancers, melanoma being one example.     Melanoma on the back     Accessorily (if […]

Read More

Molluscum contagiosum

Molluscum Contagiosum (Arm)     What is Molluscum Contagiosum ? This is a skin infection caused by a pox virus. It is a common infection in children. It is transmitted by skin contact with an infected person.     What are the signs of Molluscum Contagiosum ? The infection presents […]

Read More

Nickel Allergy

Who gets nickel allergy? Nickel sensitivity is common affecting around 5% of the population, especially in women. Anyone can become allergic to nickel, but most cases begin during teenage when girls in particular start to wear cheap metal jewellery. Ear piercing often starts up a nickel allergy which is why […]

Read More

Skin diseases in Pregnancy

What are normal skin changes that occur during pregnancy? Due to hormonal changes during pregnancy, the skin around the nipple and genital becomes dark and a dark line develop in the middle of the abdomen (called Linea Nigra). There may be purplish to pink streaks of stretch marks as the […]

Read More

Drug reactions (drug allergy)

A Drug allergy is an unwanted side effect of drugs or medication that are ingested (or injected) into our body. Drug reactions are divided into intolerance and allergies. Drug allergy reactions can affect the skin as well as internal organs of the body. It is important for a person to […]

Read More

Drug Eruptions in the Skin (toxiderma)

Our skin reflects our health. Do you know that our skin also reacts to the drugs that we use? A drug reaction may mimic any type of skin disease and may present with rashes, swelling, redness, itching and pain. They can be bullous, pustular, urticarial or papulosquamous. However, the etiology […]

Read More

George Orwell and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

George Orwell (Eric Blair; 1903-1950) was one of the most influential of English writers in the 20th century. He wrote famous books such as 1984 (written in 1948): this masterpiece shows what totalitarian rule can be and even nowadays it displays how people can be manipulated to maintain society as […]

Read More

Differentiating Psoriasis From Seborrheic Dermatitis with Dermoscopy

This is particularly useful when the diagnosis is not obvious from clinical examination* (nails, extensor surfaces (elbows), folds on the face): -Psoriasis lesions appear reddish -Seborrheic Dermatitis (Seborrhoeic Dermatitis) lesions  appear yellowish *It is typical to have this problem when the lesions are located on the scalp only     […]

Read More

Idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis (IGH)

What is idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis (IGH)  ? These are discrete porcelain-white spots measuring about 5mm in diameter. The lesions are localized on sun-exposed areas, more often on the forearms and shins. These spots are stable and do not tend to grow. Hairs located on the lesions are unaffected. No treatment […]

Read More

Calcineurin inhibitors to treat Idiopathic Guttate Hypomelanosis (IGH)

Pimecrolimus for Idiopathic Guttate Hypomelanosis Asawanonda P, Sutthipong T, Prejawai N. J. Drugs Dermatol. 2010; 9 (3): 238-239     Idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis (IGH) is a common skin disease. Its cause is unknown although sun would be involved in the developmement of the lesions.  Tretaments are of limited succes and […]

Read More

Lyme Disease (Borreliosis)

Lyme disease, what is it? Lyme disease (also called Borreliosis) is a systemic disease with skin manifestations. It is caused by bacteria of the Borrelia family which is transmitted via a tick bite (tick of the Ixodes family). The name Lyme disease refers to “Old Lyme”, a town in Connecticut […]

Read More

How to avoid tick bites (prevention of Lyme disease (Borreliosis))

It is pleasant to walk in forests once the weather becomes pleasant. However, it is a good idea to avoid insect bites, especially ticks. In forests throughout the world, but especially in Europe and North America, these insects may carry bacteria causing Lyme disease (Borreliosis). To avoid insect bites while […]

Read More

Malignant Melanoma

This is a cancer of the pigment cells of the skin. It is a highly malignant skin cancer. It presents as dark brown or black skin growth or ulcer. It may look like ordinary moles. But unlike the common mole: -it grows rapidly -its surface has several shades of red, […]

Read More

Favus: a fungal affection which disappeared ?

The term comes originally from Latin:Favus = honeycomb     When one looks at a famous picture in Dr Hebra’s textbook, one understands the comparison of the term with ease.     The fungus causing the affection is called Trichophyton schönleinii, which refers to Dr Johann Lucas Schönlein (1793-1864) who […]

Read More

L’Allergie au Nickel (Français)

Qui est allergique au Nickel? La sensibilité au Nickel est fréquente, surtout chez les femmes. Tout le monde peut devenir allergique au nickel, mais la majorité des cas débute au cours de l’adolescence en particulier chez les filles qui commencent à porter des bijoux fantaisie. Le percement des oreilles induit […]

Read More

化膿性肉芽腫 (日本語)

化膿性肉芽腫は、血管の急速な増殖によって引き起こされる良性の疾患で、毛細血管拡張性肉芽腫とも呼ばれます。症状は、赤または茶色のしこりの出現と急速な成長を特徴とし、身体中のさまざまな部位に出現します。原因は確かではなく、仮説によれば血管の増殖、外傷、妊娠などが関与している可能性があります。この疾患は通常良性ですが、症状がある場合は医師に相談し、治療法には凍結療法や外科手術が含まれます。[…]

Read More

Bullous pemphigoid in a Nutshell

Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune skin disease. It occurs in the elderly population over 60 years of age*. Clinically, tense blisters (called bullae) are present and can be preceded by urticaria-like lesions. Itching which can be intense is usually present.
- It is characterized histologically by subepidermal splits. Direct immunofluoresence of […]

Read More

Terminology: Piezogenic Pedal Papules

The Greek word of origin is: -πιεζειν = piezein = to press     The term in English is: PPPP (Painful Pedal Piezogenic Papules) …was described in 1968 by 2 US dermatologists: Drs Walter B. Shelley (1917-2009 and Rawnsley. This condition is mechanical in origin and rarely painful, It is […]

Read More

Rosacea in a Nutshell

-Also called Celtic skin disease as it is more common in light skinned caucasian individuals. -A mite called Demodex Folliculorum is associated with the condition and was discovered by an Austrian dermatologist named Karl Gustav Theodor Simon.   -Is characterized by a spectrum: 
-Pre-rosacea ===> Flushing and blushing -Vascular Rosacea […]

Read More

Rosacea

A common disorder affecting facial skin. Initially carries both a vascular and an inflammatory component – Inflammatory: Papules, pustules – Vascular: Erythema, telangiectasia, flushing     Distribution -Symmetrical localization on the face; may be asymmetrical -Nose, cheeks, forehead, chin -May involve a variety of ocular lesions     Etiology -Unknown […]

Read More

Nerve involvement in Hansen’s Disease: Look at the nails !

Leprosy (Hansen’s disease) is an often ignored skin disease and this infectious disease can sometimes affect the nervous system. Non-specific nail changes can be found in Leprosy.     Study The authors sought to study nail changes in leprosy:   Methods: In this study cases of Hansen’s were collected from […]

Read More

Association of Melanoma and Papillary Thyroid Cancer

Claire KOH, Martin TW CHIO, Hazel H OON. Cutaneous Melanoma associated with Papillary Thyroid Cancer National Skin Centre, Singapore     “The risk of melanoma patients developing second primary cancers has been studied with increasing interest due to improved survival rates of patients with melanomas. Recent studies have shown an […]

Read More

Topical Treatment Of Gorlin’s Syndrome

The sonic hedgehog pathway is implicated in the development of skin cancers called basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The mutation in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) (also called Gorlin’s syndrome) is at the level of the patched protein (PTCH) which is located on chromosome 9. PTCH is an inhibitor of […]

Read More

Moisturizing Creams In Atopic Dermatitis (AD)

Structure of the summary 1. Measuring their efficacy 2. Role of emollients 3. Where is the evidence ?     1.  Measuring their efficacy or the importance of scoring system for physicians SCORAD Objective SCORAD 3 items criteria (more practical and easier to do in daily practice): based on erythema, […]

Read More

Practical Pearls For Managing Atopic Dermatitis (AD)

Infection prevention: avoid rubber, toys: risk of GRAM – folliculitis     Baths in saline 9g Nacl in 1lt (raise to 30-36g NaCl) in KMnO4 1/10000: not on the head (effective, increases pH very slightly (paradoxical) but reduces St Aureus)     Moisturization of the skin “stay less in water” […]

Read More

Atopic Dermatitis: The Role Of Filaggrin (flg)

Several genes and environmental factors are implicated but the one gene having the biggest role is filaggrin. This gene will be studied here     Synthesis process of filaggrin (flg): genetic localisation: chromosome 1=epidermal differentiation complex (group of genes coding proteins which are important for the differentiation of the epidermis […]

Read More

Atopic Dermatitis: a Short Summary

Atopic Dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the skin which affects around 5% of the population. It is more prevalent in children living in industrialized nations with 15-20% affected. Initial presentation is under the age of four in 2/3 of cases. Global pollution and allergen-rich environment are some of […]

Read More

Naglaa Fathi (نجلاء فتحي) and Psoriasis

Naglaa Fathi (نجلاء فتحي) (Fatma al-Zahraa Hussein Fathi, born in 1950) is an Egyptian actress who has played in over 80 movies, She is married since 1992 to Egyptian TV presenter Hamdi Qandil (حمدى قنديل). Recently her husband declared on their Facebook that Ms Fathi had psoriasis: Unfortunately, Naglaa has […]

Read More

Clint Eastwood and Sun-Damaged Skin

Clint Eastwood (Clinton “Clint” Eastwood, Jr, born  in 1930) is an American actor. He has had a very long career playing in movies such as The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (1966). This movies along with many other Western genres imply sunexposure and more generally reflect the popularity of […]

Read More

Hand eczema

What is Hand Eczema ? Hand Eczema is a common skin condition affecting patients of all ages, especially young adults. It may be caused by -Constitutional factors that is, an inherently sensitive skin. -Irritation from too much exposure to wet work, detergents, oils and greases, solvents etc at home or […]

Read More

Itch in Atopic Dermatitis: the role of Hydrogen Sulfide

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is a gasotransmitter which is found to be increased in the inflammation response, but we don’t know if it exacerbates it or keeps it in check. We have no idea whether H2S is an inducer (LINK) or a reliever of itch (LINK). It’s probably as complicated as […]

Read More

Alopecia Areata

Alopecia Areata     What is alopecia areata? Alopecia areata is a common skin disorder seen in children and young adults. It is characterized by hair loss in localized round areas on the scalp, the beard area and occasionally on the eyebrows . A positive family history for alopecia areata […]

Read More

Lupus Erythematosus

What are the types of lupus erythematosus ? There are three types: -Systemic (or acute) lupus erythematosus: important involvement of the internal organs with or without skin manifestations. -Subacute lupus erythematosus: moderate internal involvement with cutaneous manifestations. -Discoid (or chronic) lupus erythematosus: skin involvement only.     How does lupus […]

Read More

Chemical peels

What is a chemical peel ? Also called exfoliation treatment, it is a technique of skin regeneration, thus having an “anti-aging” effect. An evaluation before treatment as well as the treatment itself must be done by a physician experienced in dermatology. Different chemical substances can be used. By this technique, […]

Read More

Segni cutanei di tumori interni (Italiano)

La pelle è lo specchio di ciò che accade all’interno del corpo. Alcune lesioni sono correlate ad alcuni tumori e possono servire come segnali di avvertimento di qualcosa di meno visibile che avviene all’interno del corpo. Essere consapevoli dei propri cambiamenti a livello cutaneo può consentire la diagnosi precoce e […]

Read More

Pompholyx or Dysidrosis ?

The Greek word of origin is: πομφολυξ = pompholyx = vesicle This term was given to what is now pemphigus by Robert Willan (a British physician, 1757-1817, the real founder of dermatology). Alibert (a French physician, 1766-1837) decided then to use this term for all bullous skin conditions originating from […]

Read More

What’s New In The Pathogenesis And Prevention Of Extrinsic Aging (Photoaging)

Photoaging (Extrinsic Aging, solar elastosis)   Skin Aging can be Understood by considering two concepts Cumulative acute stress through chronic mechanisms: three stages: -degeneration of macromolecules -Altered cell function -Modified Structure and function of organs     Mitochondrial DNA mutation: increased oxidative stress generation: -characterized by 4977 base pairs (double-stranded) […]

Read More

Laser Hair Removal

Why do I have excessive hairs? A. For most people, this is due to genetic or familial factors. There is no underlying medical cause for the excessive hair growth. B. Rarely, excessive hairs maybe due to underlying medical problems. These conditions are associated with hormonal disturbances resulting in extra hair […]

Read More

Indira Gandhi (ইন্দিৰা গান্ধী) and Piebaldism

Indira Gandhi (ইন্দিৰা গান্ধী; 1917-1984) was the prime minister of India from in 1966 to 1977 (2 terms). She is the daughter of J.Nehru. She held a third term from 1980 to 1984, when she was assassinated.     She has the characteristic white forelock of piebaldism: Piebaldism is inherited […]

Read More

Acne Treatment: The Additional Help of Antidiabetic Drugs (Metformin)

Take Home Massage: The benefit of added Metformin in the treatment of Acne Vulgaris is still a matter of debate and more studies are needed. The benefit of metformin would be on inflammatory lesions (Full Abstracts below)(Studies from Malaysia and the Philippines)   Comments: In both studies metformin is added to […]

Read More

Oral Antidiabetic Drugs in Dermatology

Metformin in dermatology: an overview. Badr D, Kurban M, Abbas O. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2013 Nov;27(11):1329-35. doi: 10.1111/jdv.12116. Epub 2013 Feb 26.     Metformin is an oral hypoglycaemic agent. It acts by decreasing hepatic glucose output and increases the glucose utilization by muscles and adipocytes (increase in […]

Read More

Lichen Planus

What is lichen planus ? It is an inflammatory condition of the skin.     What is the chance of having it ? At any time, the frequency is evaluated at 0.5% of the population The development of lesions is triggered by stress.     What does it look like […]

Read More

Impetigo

Impetigo   What is lmpetigo ? This is an acute superficial infection of the skin caused by bacteria. This infection is common in pre-school children and young adults.     What are the signs of Impetigo ? The infection appears as skin blisters which later break down to become superficial […]

Read More

Contact allergy (Allergic contact dermatitis)

What is Contact Allergy ? Contact allergy is an allergic skin reaction from coming into contact with a substance that is usually harmless.     What are the common manifestations of contact allergy ? The commonest manifestation is an itchy rash that develops over a few days, after skin contact […]

Read More

Ichthyosis Vulgaris

What is ichthyosis vulgaris ? It is an inherited condition (Autosomal dominant pattern) It affects one in 250 people.     What does it look like ? It causes dry scaly plaques. The lesions are usually more prominent on the limbs (arms and legs). The plaques usually start to appear […]

Read More

Psoriasis at the World Health Organization (WHO) and the IFPA

Abbreviations: WHO: World Health Organization;  IFPA: International Federation of Psoriasis Associations; P:Psoriasis; PA: Psoriasis Arthritis   Why was the IFPA created ? -To become trustworthy and respected as an international patient organization for psoriasis -To build a group demonstrating the high impact of P on the affected individual as well […]

Read More

Vitiligo (Português)

Vitiligo     O que é o vitiligo? O vitiligo é uma doença de pele que se manifesta com o surgimento de manchas brancas na pele. A sua causa é a perda progressiva do pigmento (melanina) responsável pela cor da pele. A perda do pigmento ocorre quando as células de […]

Read More

Hyperpigmentary Disorders in Caucasians

The following conditions can be found in the Caucasian population (non-exhaustive list):   Freckles Freckles (Ephelides): increased amount of melanin with normal number of melanocytes     Lentigenes (solar lentigo): appear after 50 years old Histologically: epidermal pigmentation located mainly in the basal layer Caused by an increase number of […]

Read More

Practicing Teledermatology Effectively Moving Forward

“To be converted one must first be convinced.” Lailah Gifty Akita     Teledermatology (TD) or Telemedecine for Skin Diseases is the use of Information & Communication Technology (ICT) applied to the diagnosis, treatment and management of dermatological conditions. Using ICT, dermatology can benefit greatly in a both effective and […]

Read More

Common Skin Diseases: how “Common”​ ? (Study from Tanzania)

87% of children will suffer from a skin disease and in both adults and children five skin conditions amount to 80% of skin problems (World Heath Organization brochure on Neglected Tropical Diseases Brochure: section 2.10) This study goes further into this. Through dermatologists and medical officers trained in dermatology, belonging […]

Read More

Squamous Cell carcinoma in Situ: who was Bowen ?

Squamous cell carcinoma in situ was described in 1912 as a precancerous dermatosis by Dr John Templeton Bowen (1857-1940) -He was an American Dermatologist graduated from Harvard and was a Professor of Dermatology. He trained abroad in Germany and Austria. -Descriptions from him also include Bowenoid papulosis     On […]

Read More

Eczema / Atopic Dermatitis – Some Takeaway Messages

Link to original article Eczema / Dermatitis in Africa how common is common ? -This study from the Regional Dermatology Training Centre in Tanzania show that close to 40% of patients of all ages attending the clinic present with an inflammatory dermatosis. Of those, more than 80% have eczema (dermatitis). […]

Read More

El acné vulgar (Español)

  ¿Cuál es la causa del acné? Existen varias causas del acné. Una teoría es que cuando el nivel de hormona masculina (testosterona) aumenta durante la pubertad, la piel de una persona propensa al acné reacciona a la hormona y produce el exceso de sebo. Nadie sabe por qué las […]

Read More

Oral Isotretinoin

Your doctor has prescribed oral isotretinoin for use.     What is isotretinoin used for? Isotretinoin is used to treat severe acne that has not responded to other acne medicines. It reduces the oil gland activity and clears inflammation.     How should I take isotretinoin? Isotretinoin is available in […]

Read More

Cytostéatonécrose du Nouveau-Né

Cytostéatonécrose du nouveau-né     Qu’est-ce que la cytostéatonécrose du nouveau-né ? Il s’agit d’une panniculite lobulaire.* Elle est associée avec des complications pendant l’accouchement. Elle se présente sous la forme de nodules indolores sous-cutanés indurés de couleur rouge-foncé. Les lésions sont typiquement localisées au niveau des saillies osseuses (haut […]

Read More

Treatment of Solar Lentigines in Caucasians

About lentigo solaris (solar lentigo, lentigines): -Occurs in sun exposed areas typically in individuals aged 50 and over -Histologically, pigmentation is located in the epidermis, in the basal layer.  (Stratum basale) -It is caused by an increased number of melanocytes who have a normal amount of melanin     Treatment […]

Read More

Hori’s Nevus (Bilateral Acquired Nevus of Ota)

Introduction It is a skin disorder which concerns mainly Asians Clinically, Hori’s Nevus can coexist with melasma (chloasma, pregnancy mask) and or solar lentigos. It can be difficult to distinguish them*.     *But it is important to distinguish them as Hori’s nevus responds well to the Nd-YAG 1064nm laser. […]

Read More

Newer Depigmenting Substances

Newer Depigmenting substances: -N-acetyl glucosamine -Artocarpanone -4-n-butylresorcinol (rucinol) -Ursolic Acid -Anthraquinones -Cinnamic Acid -Macelignan -Gallic Acid -Glycine -Isopanduratin A and 4-Hydroxypanduratin A -Kurarinol, Kurarinidol and Trifolirhizin -Pycnogenol -8% topical indomethacin cream -Selina dien-8-one -Taxifolin -DeoxyArbutin and its second generation derivatives -Hydroperoxy Traxastane t; type Triterpene -Piceatannol     Handog E. […]

Read More

Phototherapy with Ultraviolet Light Type B (UVB) in Psoriasis

Treatment of psoriasis is step by step: The base and most important is education and support Then comes topical treatment Then comes systemic treatment and/or phototherapy     Does UVB (Ultraviolet type B) have a role to play in the treatment in psoriasis? US Survey on 387 dermatologists and asked […]

Read More

Skin diseases related to housework

Common skin disorders that may arise from housework are:     Irritant contact dermatitis This is the commonest skin disorder that can arise from housework. It commonly affects the hands. The condition usually begins with mild dryness, redness, peeling and scaliness on the hands. Later cracks and crusts develop.   […]

Read More

Pigment Characteristics in the Caucasian Population

There are two types of pigments (melanin) which determine skin colour in caucasians:     Eumelanin: -Has a photoprotective action -Acts as a physical and chemical filter to light -Absorbs free radicals in response to sun exposure     Pheomelanin: -Is found most often in red-haired individuals -Has a photoaggressive […]

Read More

Keratosis follicularis: who was Darier ?

Dr Ferdinand Jean Darier (1856-1938) was born in Budapest, Hungary. He studied medicine in Geneva, Switzerland and Paris. He worked with Drs Ernest Besnier et Alfred Fournier and sub-specialized in dermatopathology. Darier is considered as the father of modern dermatology in France and wrote a dermatology textbook  “Précis de Dermatologie” […]

Read More

Hauterkrankungen im Augenbereich (Deutsch)

Kontaktdermatitis des Augenlides Kosmetika und Reiniger werden gewöhnlich auf Augenlidern und Wimpern verwendet. Diese können irritierende oder allergische Reaktionen bei Patienten hervorrufen, die empfindlich auf solche Kosmetika und Reinigungsmittel reagieren. Patienten beklagen sich über Juckreiz, Brennen und Rötung. Anzeichen von Kontaktdermatitis sind Ausblühen, Rötung und Schuppen. Wenn eine Allergie vermutet […]

Read More

Hansen’s Disease (Leprosy) – The disease and its classification

The type of disease developed is partially linked to the HLA genes: HLA DR2 and HLA DR3 predispose to tuberculoid disease and HLA–Mt1 to lepromatous disease. Environmental factors such as poor nutrition and poor sanitation play a role through altered immunity in a yet ill-understood mechanism. Human disease results from […]

Read More

Hansen’s Disease-induced Hand Deformity: Claw Hand

Claw hand is the most common deformity in leprosy: It is due to paralysis of the intrinsic muscles hand which is innervated by the median and/or ulnar nerves. Leads to hyperextension of MCP (metacarophalangeal) joints and flexion of the IP (interphalangeal) joints.   Management consists of occupational therapy and/or reconstruction […]

Read More

Chemical Peels to Treat Pigmentary Disorders

How does it work ? -destruction of the epidermis and dermis followed by their natural reconstitution.     Treatment indications include: -ephelides (freckles) -solar lentigenes (lentigo) -superficial melasma (chloasma, pregnancy mask) -post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) -acne-induced pigmentation     To learn more about chemical peels, click HERE.     Source of […]

Read More

Ultraviolet Damage: which layer do the Cytotoxic molecules come from ?

Introduction: -Ultraviolet damage mostly comes from the generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) -The enzymes responsible for the synthesis of ROS (oxygen singulets, O2. and 1O2) are Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase. They are present in higher quantities in in the Stratum Corneum (SC) than in the lower epidermis and […]

Read More

Pityriasis Versicolor

-It is a common infection in young individuals -
The cause is because of the presence of a yeast (fungus) called malassezia furfur.     -Clinically is causes depigmented patches with fine scales on the surface (pityriasiform desquamation)   -Diagnosis is straightforward and clinical: -Scraping the lesions causes accentuation of scales. […]

Read More

Atopic Dermatitis: Treating Itch and Biologics Review

Interleukin (IL) 31 induces in cynomolgus monkeys a rapid and intense itch response that can be inhibited by an IL-31 neutralizing antibody. Lewis KE, Holdren MS, Maurer MF, Underwood S, Meengs B, Julien SH, Byrnes-Blake KA, Freeman JA, Bukowski TR, Wolf AC, Hamacher NB, Rixon MW, Dillon SR. J Eur […]

Read More

Cáncer de Piel (Español)

¿Qué es el cáncer de piel? Existen varios tipos de cáncer de piel. Los tres tipos comunes de cáncer de piel son:     1. Carcinoma de células escamosas -Se presenta como una excrecencia rojiza irregular generalmente localizada sobre la piel expuesta al sol -Estos tumores pueden crecer rápidamente y […]

Read More

Urticaria (hives)

What is Urticaria (Hives) ? Urticaria or hives as it is commonly called, is an itchy rash consisting of localized swellings of the skin that usually last for a few hours before fading away. When urticaria develops around loose tissues of the eyes or lips, the affected area may swell […]

Read More

Interaction Potential of Germs on the Skin Underestimated

Human Skin Is the Largest Epithelial Surface for Interaction with Microbes. Gallo RL. J Invest Dermatol. 2017 Apr 8. pii: S0022-202X(17)31164-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2016.11.045.     The biggest quantity of germs is in the gut, more exactly in the colon. Effects of the flora are numerous (please see the figure “Microbiome […]

Read More

Why “Healthy Bacteria” are so Important in Normal Skin

Antimicrobials from human skin commensal bacteria protect against Staphylococcus aureus and are deficient in atopic dermatitis. Nakatsuji T, Chen TH, Narala S, Chun KA, Two AM, Yun T, Shafiq F, Kotol PF, Bouslimani A, Melnik AV, Latif H, Kim JN, Lockhart A, Artis K, David G, Taylor P, Streib J, […]

Read More

Childhood Eczema and Germs in the Gut

Neonatal gut microbiota associates with childhood multisensitized atopy and T cell differentiation. Fujimura KE, Sitarik AR, Havstad S, Lin DL, Levan S, Fadrosh D, Panzer AR, LaMere B, Rackaityte E, Lukacs NW, Wegienka G, Boushey HA, Ownby DR, Zoratti EM, Levin AM, Johnson CC, Lynch SV. Nat Med. 2016 Oct;22(10):1187-1191. […]

Read More

Actinic keratosis

These lesions are seen on the sun-exposed skin especially on the face, upper chest, back and forearms. When they are located on the lips, they are called actinic cheilitis (see picture below) They appear as scaly reddish or brown patches on the skin. Numerous lesions may occur at the same […]

Read More

Role Of The Microfibrills of Fibrillin In Aging and Photoaging

Presentation of fibrillin -is an extracellular protein -is responsible as scafolding for deposition elastic fibres -exists as fibrillin f1 and 2 -encoded by FBN1 and 2 -encoding Marfan syndrome     Functions of fibrillin: -strengthens elastic fibres and enables transmission of forces between the epidermis and dermis -What is elastic […]

Read More

Diet in Dermatology: the Evidence

Introduction -Diet is quite often a question the patient asks when seeing a skin doctor and it is important to acknowledge that frequently “natural” solutions are sought before any medical ones. -Acne has been the classical target of this quest for simplicity and the results of studies over half a […]

Read More

Acne and Diet

Diet and acne. Bowe WP, Joshi SS, Shalita AR. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010 Jul;63(1):124-41.   It is common for dermatologists to dispell myths that acne wouldn’t be related to diet. Controversy exists in this domain due to the fact that a lot of the initial myths advocating an implication […]

Read More

Atopic Dermatitis Prevention: the Facts (Moisturizers, Breastfeeding, Hydrolyzed Milk, Diet, Prebiotics, Probiotics, Vitamin D)

Primary prevention of Atopic Dermatitis (AD) in high risk children remains a controversial issue. Measures including skin barrier repair, breastfeeding, hydrolyzed formula feeding (enzyme digestion of some proteins contained in milk), maternal dietary avoidance, consumption of probiotics and Prebiotics, and Vitamin D intake as primary prevention of AD is shown […]

Read More

Solar lentigines (liver spots, early seborrheic keratosis)

What are solar lentigines? -Solar lentigines are brown spots 1 cm or greater in diameter, occurring usually on the face and back of the hands. -Solar lentigines are evidence of excessive sunlight exposure. -They are found in individuals over 40 years of age, especially if they have a long history […]

Read More

Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation

What is post-infammatory hyperpigmentation? -It is a discolouration that is left on the skin after an underlying skin disease has healed. -The underlying skin disease may be trauma, skin infection, eczema (dermatitis) or a drug reaction. -In dark-skinned persons, the colour tends to be more intense and persists for a […]

Read More

Lasers in Skin Disorders

How is laser used to treat skin disorders? -Lasers are a very pure and intense light source. -When the laser light shines onto the skin, a certain target in the skin absorbs the laser light. -Different targets in the skin will absorb laser light of different characteristics. After absorption of […]

Read More

T Bubo (inflammed lymph node): remembering the plague

The term comes from Greek: -βoυβớν = boubon = swelling of the inguinal gland -In other words it is an adenopathy of inguinal lymph mode – also called bubon.   Today the term is less and less used probably because Hippocrates (of Kos) described it for thé plague, which was […]

Read More

Spironolactone in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris in Females

Background: There has been an increasing incidence in the prevalence of adult acne vulgaris ranging between 30-50%. Androgens play a significant role in the pathogenesis of acne. Recently, hormonal therapy has been advocated as a first line therapy for acne vulgaris among female patients who experience premenstrual flares, acne beginning […]

Read More

Acne in Individuals with Colored Skin

Acne Vulgaris: -is a common cause of hyperpigmentation -affects 27-29% of patients -this includes 50% of adult women   When comparing acne patients in 4 cities (Los Angeles vs Rome vs Akita vs London) it was found that dyspigmentation and atrophic scarring more common in African Americans and Hispanics than […]

Read More

Porrigo : have you heard this (If not it’s normal !)

The word comes from latin: Porrigere = to extend   -If one looks in old dermatology textbooks which includes Alibert’s (1768-1837) famous atlas; on will surely stumble upon this term. By trying to find the skin condition corresponding to this term, one quickly realizes that there is a great confusion […]

Read More

Hansen’s disease (Leprosy)

What is Hansen’s disease? -It is an infection caused by a bacteria called Mycobacterium Leprae.     How is it transmitted? -This is still incompletely understood but it would be airborne. -It is not transmitted during birth and even prolonged contact does not guarantee transmission.     How is it […]

Read More

Management of Psoriatic Arthritis

General measures joint protection exercise weight loss reduction of stress physical therapy, occupational therapy. Note: there is no randomized control trial (RCT) which assesses the benefit of physical therapy in patients (Here is a 2021 review of the current evidence: LINK)   Classical Medication NSAIDS: Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs […]

Read More

Excessive Sweating under the Armpits : An Effective Treatment ?

Short- and long-term efficacy and mechanism of action of tumescent suction curettage for axillary hyperhidrosis. Feldmeyer L, Bogdan I, Moser A, Specker R, Kamarashev J, French LE, Läuchli S. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015 Oct;29(10):1933-7. doi: 10.1111/jdv.13078. Epub 2015 Mar 12.   Excessive Sweating under the armpits (Axillary Hyperhidrosis, […]

Read More

Auspitz Sign in Psoriasis – who named it ?

What is it ? It is the presence of pinpoint bleeding when the scales are removed from the surface of psoriasis lesions. In French, it is called “signe de la rosée sanglante” which translates to: dew which looks like blood There are full of histopathological details, but this is nothing […]

Read More

Pachyderma: what does it mean ?

The Greek words of origin are: –παχυς= pachus = thick –δερμα = derma = skin   -“Pachyderm” refers to a family of mammals with thickened skin and includes the elephant, hippopotamus and rhinoceros. -“Pachys” is frequently used in medical terminology: a lot of human organs can thicken: skull, meninges, spine, […]

Read More

Lasers to treat Pigmentation

Lasers to treat pigmentation: All operate according to the Q-switched mode (pulse of very short duration): -alexandrite laser -ruby laser -NdYAG laser   Before using lasers, other treatments are to be tried: -topical (creams, depigmentation cream). -surface ablation (chemical peels) -lasers   Does it work? -lentigines: Laser pigment work better […]

Read More

Colouring the Skin (Repigmentation of Leucoderma)

“Leucoderma encompasses a variety of conditions that arise from perturbations of melanocyte function or disappearance of melanocytes. Although leucoderma does not cause physical disabilities, the psychosocial embarrassement it presents can be tremendous, especially if it is present on exposed parts of the body, such as the face, neck or limbs. […]

Read More

Differential Diagnosis of Hypomelanoses in Children

Differential diagnosis of hypomelanoses in children (N. Van Geel (Ghent, Belgium)) Use a stepwise approach:   1. Step 1 History -congenital or acquired -stable or progressive -other medical problems -family history   2. Step 2 Clinical Examination -localisation (Woods light important especially in the localized form) -number of lesions -pattern […]

Read More

Oral Treatment of Psoriasis and Weight Loss (Apremilast)

Metabolic and Weight Changes With Apremilast in Patients With Psoriasis. Pooled Laboratory analysis of the Phase 3 ESTEEM 1 and 2 Trials Armstrong AW et al (Mulitcenter Study) Poster 1652: EADV Annual Meeting 2015 – Copenhagen, Denmark -Small molecules are the latest* in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis […]

Read More

Psoriasis

What is psoriasis ? -It is an inflammatory skin condition. -An infiltrate of cells involved in inflammation attract other participants to perpetuate the inflammatory process.   What are the chances of having it ? -The proportion of the population having psoriasis is 2%. This percentage is higher regionally, particularly in […]

Read More

Why Obesity Leads to Skin Problems

Increment of subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with decrease of elastic fibers in the dermal layer. Ezure T, Amano S. Exp Dermatol. 2015 Jul 21. doi: 10.1111/exd.12816. [Epub ahead of print]   Obesity is the big health problem of industrialized countries.It is measured by the Body Mass Index (BMI) which […]

Read More

炎症後色素沈着 (日本語)

炎症後色素沈着とは何か? 炎症後色素沈着は、炎症が治まった後に皮膚が変色してしまう症状を指します。 外傷、皮膚感染症、湿疹(皮膚炎)、薬物反応の後などに症状が出ることがあります。 肌の色が濃いほど、沈着する色素の色が濃く、期間も長引きます。 -色素沈着は、時間の経過とともに徐々に薄くなる傾向があります。     炎症後色素沈着(皮膚炎後)    […]

Read More

Problemi della pelle negli individui anziani (Italiano)

Variazioni nell’aspetto e nella grana della pelle. -La pelle si rinnova continuamente. Nuove cellule si formano nello strato più profondo dell’epidermide e migrano progressivamente verso la superficie. Le cellule sono morte quando raggiungono la superficie della pelle e vanno incontro a esfoliazione. Con l’età, il processo di rinnovamento rallenta. Lo […]

Read More

Long-lasting Hair Removal: Is it Possible ?

A lot of time and financial resources are spent by the patients for hair removal. It is often believed by the public that hair removal can be complete aften multiple treatment sessions. However this is wrong for many reasons: -different lasers achieve different long term results on hair growth -even […]

Read More

Vitiligo and Atherosclerosis

-Vitiligo is suggested in a study by the same authors (HERE) to be associated with metabolic syndrome. -High blood sugar and hypertension are risk factors and this study suggests that atherosclerosis could also be associated with vitiligo. -Moreover, insulin resistance and increased homocysteine levels have already been described. -Atherogenesis in […]

Read More

Vitiligo and Metabolic syndrome

Vitiligo affects 1% of the world population and is a psychologically devastating disease especially when visible areas are affected, such as the face. Psoriasis is associated with the so-called named “metabolic syndrome” (MS): abdominal (central) obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, and low high-density cholesterol […]

Read More

Metabolic Syndrome and the Skin

Metabolic syndrome is also known as metabolic syndrome X, cardiometabolic syndrome, syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, Reaven’s syndrome (named for Gerald Reaven), and CHAOS (in Australia). It affects 24% of the adults in the US, with the highest prevalence being in individuals 60 through 69 years of age (44%). Simply […]

Read More

Vitiligo

What is vitiligo ? -Vitiligo is a skin disorder which presents as white spots and patches on the skin. -This is due to a progressive loss of the pigment, melanin, which gives us our skin colour. The loss of pigment occurs when pigment cells (melanocytes) are destroyed and melanin cannot […]

Read More

Hand eczema

What is Hand Eczema ? Hand Eczema is a common skin condition affecting patients of all ages, especially young adults. It may be caused by -Constitutional factors that is, an inherently sensitive skin. -Irritation from too much exposure to wet work, detergents, oils and greases, solvents etc at home or […]

Read More

Psoriasis

-Psoriasis is a common skin condition which affects about 2% of the population.
It is more frequent in Caucasians of northern European origin.   -Its classical (vulgaris) presentation consists of pinkish-erythematous and scaly plaques located on the extensor areas such as the elbows, knees buttocks and the scalp. -Old lesions can […]

Read More

Urticaria

-It was first suggested in 1000-2000 BC in China and was called “Feng Yin Zheng”. It is found in “The Yellow Emperor’s Inner Classic”, by Huang Di Nei Jing -It is a condition where lesions come and go (less than 24 hours) and are located on all parts of the […]

Read More

Sunscreens

What are sunscreens used for? Excessive exposure to the ultraviolet light, visible and infra-red radiation of the sun can cause sunburn, premature aging and wrinkling, brown pigmentation, hypersensitivity reactions to sunlight and skin cancer. Although your skin has its own natural defense mechanism, it’s not enough to prevent the damage […]

Read More

Nail Nevi and Melanoma

General Facts -the lunula is part of the matrix and a melanocytic primary lesion implicates lunula involvement -slow longitudinal thickening is a characteristic of melanoma (or at least it needs to be ruled out)   Signs that a lesion is not melanocytic -arcuate white line associated with redness or pigmentation: […]

Read More

Atopic Dermatitis Biologic Treatment with Nemolizumab

Anti-Interleukin-31 Receptor A Antibody for Atopic Dermatitis. Ruzicka T, Hanifin JM, Furue M, Pulka G, Mlynarczyk I, Wollenberg A, Galus R, Etoh T, Mihara R, Yoshida H, Stewart J, Kabashima K; XCIMA Study Group.. N Engl J Med. 2017 Mar 2;376(9):826-835. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1606490.     -Atopic Dermatitis is a chronic […]

Read More

Keratosis Pilaris

Keratosis pilaris (KP) is a very frequent condition: -It presents as follicular scaly papules affected all areas except the glabrous skin but mostly found on the arms, legs and buttocks. -These lesions are painless but may be red and itchy at times. -The prevalence of the condition in adults is […]

Read More

Papules, pustules, vesicles..where does this come from ?

-Description of primary and secondary lesions is the ground for modern dermatology and the classification of skin diseases. -From 1798 to 1808, different parts of a book called “On cutaneous diseases” was published by the British dermatologist Dr Robert Willan (1757-1812) [He also described erythema infectiosum occuring in childhood. The […]

Read More

Topical Antifungal Preparations

If you are prescribed a topical antifungal it may be one of the following (list not complete):   Cream / Ointments -Ciclopiroxolamine -Econazole -Miconazole -Clotrimazole -Ketoconazole -Nystatin -Terbinafine   Liquids -Amorolfine -Ciclopiroxolamine -Econazole -Tolciclate -Castellani’s -Clotrimazole -Selenium Sulphide   Powders -Clotrimazole -Miconazole -Econazole -Tolciclate   Pessaries / Vaginal tablets -Clotrimazole […]

Read More

Ageing (Aging): Observations and Solutions

-“With advancing age, skin functions deteriorate due to structural and morphologic changes. In particular, changes in skin barrier integrity, immune function, and nervous system occur, resulting in an incresaed prevalence of certain diseases. As the elderly population is rapidly increasing throughout the world, awareness of these diseases and methods to […]

Read More

Acne vulgaris (pimples) (common acne)

What is the cause of acne? There are several causes of acne. One theory is that when the male hormone level (testosterone) increases during puberty, the skin of an acne prone person reacts to the hormone and produces excess sebum. No one knows why some individual’s oil glands produce more […]

Read More

Kaposi’s sarcoma: remembering the condition existed before HIV

-Moriz Kaposi (1837-1902) was a Hungarian dermatologist practicing in Vienna, at the time the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. -He described Idiopathic Multiple Pigment Sarcoma of the skin in 1878 – now widely called Kaposi’s sarcoma. -Since then it is not fully idiopathic anymore and is due to reactivation of […]

Read More

Acne Vulgaris in Adult Females: Hormonal treatment

-Hormonal therapies (antiandrogens) such as oral contraceptives and spironolactone are often used in the treatment of acne, particularly in adult women. -It is therefore sometimes useful to run blood tests in acne patients entering this category, morevover when there is a clinical suspicion of virilizing ovarian tumors, polycystic ovarian syndrome […]

Read More

Degos Disease (Atrophic Malignant Papulosis): who was he ?

Atrophic Malignant Papulosis was described in 1942 by the Parisian dermatologist Dr. Robert Degos (1904-1987) en 1942 in a 49 year old plumber. Biopsies were examined by Dr Achille Civatte and showed marked epidermal atrophy with absence of infiltrate in the dermis, with vascular changes leading to thrombosis. Although extremely […]

Read More

Hair loss (alopecia)

Why do we lose hairs ? Normal hair grows in cycles and goes through 3 stages: -A growing phase (anagen) -A resting phase (catagen) -A falling phase  (telogen) At any time, it may be normal for a person to lose as many as 50 hairs a day and these usually […]

Read More

Stretch Marks

No current therapeutical modality gives complete clearance: -the best way remains prevention. -Our impression is that the most effective available treatments will yield around 30% improvement.   CREAMS -tretinoin (retin A) 0.1% has a proven effect (Topical tretinoin 0.1% for pregnancy-related abdominal striae: an open-label, multicenter, prospective study. Rangel O, […]

Read More

Pityriasis Rosea: Who named it ?

Also known as Pityriasis Rosea of Gibert, it was named by a French dermatologist in 1860. Dr Camille Gibert (1797-1866) was a student of Laurent Biett, a Swiss dermatologist (who described the collarette of Biett, a sign of secondary syphilis). Gibert also made many inoculation experiments being able to demonstrate […]

Read More

Acne Scars

Scarring in acne as in other skin diseases is the result of an initally active process. Consider two situations:   1. either the pimples are still developing -In this situation, it is important to prevent new pimples from developing as they are developing “bombs” which will later change into the […]

Read More

Nevus spilus: why use such a term ?

Terminology Nevus comes from Latin and translated to: patch present at birth The Greek word of origin: σπιλος = spilos = dirt Translated together it means: dirty nevus   Definition It is often understood that nevus spilus is a melanocytic nevus within another melanocytics nevus , or better melanocytic nevi […]

Read More

Blaschko lines: who was Dr Blaschko ?

Blaschko lines are a distribution of skin lines which can be found in certain dermatosis, often genetic. Examples include incontinentia pigmenti, epidermal nevus, lichen striatus…   These lines carry the name of Dr Alfred Blaschko (1858-1922), a German dermatologist who described the lines on a statue and published the pictoral […]

Read More

Localized non-scarring alopecia: What is Ophiasis ?

The Greek word of origin is: οφις = ophis = snake   This term is used when alopecia areata affects the occipital and parietal areas of the scalp. When the alopecic plaques are horizontal, and that they merge together, they appear as a sinuous line which reminds us of a […]

Read More

Goltz-Gorlin syndrome: Is it one or 2 syndromes ?

What syndrome is it and who is the author ? The authors are two physicians with the same first name. Dr Robert Gorlin (1923-2006) was initially a dentist and was interested in oral diseases. He joined the Minnesota school of dentistry as a stomatologist (histology and oral pathology). When he […]

Read More

Fox-Fordyce disease: do not mix it up with Fordyce ONLY !

Fox-Fordyce disease is also known as apocrine miliaria: It appears as papules in apocrine gland bearing areas such as the axillae, the pubic areas and around the areolae. It is due to a chronic obstruction of the apocrine glands It was described by Dr George Henry Fox (1846-1937), an American […]

Read More

Lichen: from the botanical garden to dermatology

The greek word from which this term comes from is :λειχην = leichen = lichen (dartrous) This denomination was given following botanics, to describe dermatoses defined by a gathering of papules or elevated lesions (plaques) which resemble lichen (or dartrous-like) On the famous tree of dermatoses by Alibert in 1828, […]

Read More

Syphilis – How was the cause found ?

The cause of syphilis was found by two *German dermatologists (in 1905): a spirochaete bacteria called Treponema Pallidum When presented at a meeting of the Berlin medical society, the president, Prof Ernst Von Bergmann, cut him short with words he no doubt later regretted. “This terminates the discussion – until […]

Read More

Join Online Now: Essentials Series on Telemedecine & AI in Dermatology

JOIN ONLINE NOW   Dear Colleagues, Professor Peter Soyer and other distinguished experts in the field embark on a remarkable journey into the world of Digital Health in Dermatology. Join them online now!   Symposium: Telemedecine & AI in Dermatology Schedule: June 24th, 2023 at 12:00 UTC Chair: Professor Peter […]

Read More

Introduction

Seborrheic keratosis (SK) is a benign epidermal neoplasm which presents as an eruption of one to hundreds of  papules or plaques. The major potential burden for the patient is a cosmetic nuisance, but a florid acute appearance of SK lesions can rarely be associated with an internal neoplasm {Vielhauer, 2000; […]

Read More